Semantic memory disorders are difficulties in attaining the full meaning of words and/or of percepts that can be frequently found in patients with focal or diffuse forms of brain pathology. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. 1. At the very least, this would seem to indicate that the cortex does massive amounts of parallel computation. The features generated were classified as to type of knowledge (sensory, functional, or encyclopaedic), and also quantified with regard to both dominance (the number of participants specifying that property for that concept) and distinctiveness (the proportion of exemplars within a conceptual category of which that feature was considered characteristic). The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of Semantic Dementia are due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. This Special Issue of Brain Sciences aims to update our knowledge of these lines of research, providing new data and reviews of these advancements. The essence of this knowledge, either individual or collective, is often perceived as a dynamic array of experiences, values, contextual information and expert insights. These two findings were related to current models of single word and sentence production; a functional locus for HY's naming deficit is proposed. These patients produce a rambling, noninformative output, containing many words but conveying comparatively little information. The author illustrates the model with some of the semantic domains that a child acquires during the first formative years of life. This set of predictions will be labelled 'the sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge'. In Section II, related work is discussed. She had difficulty reading function words. For example, Aristotle’s effort t… In, Mamadou Tadiou Kone (International University of Grand-Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire), Advances in Logistics, Operations, and Management Science, InfoSci-Computer Science and Information Technology, InfoSci-Business Knowledge Solutions – Books, InfoSci-Computer Science and IT Knowledge Solutions – Books, Encyclopedia of Organizational Knowledge, Administration, and Technology, SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). OVERVIEW; METHODOLOGY; SIMPLE MODELS OF SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION; NETWORK MODELS OF SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION; FRAMES AND SCRIPTS AS SCHEMA; OVERVIEW We have already noted the impressive capacity of long term memory. An advantage for artefacts is typically associated with an aetiology of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (which predominantly affects temporolimbic structures) whilst the opposite pattern more often follows damage to frontoparietal regions, ... Several clinical observations of aphasics support this assumption. The neuroanatomical substrate of this distinction also remains a subject of debate. The status of semantic representations of nouns (concrete and abstract) and verbs (motion and non-motion) was investigated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a Semantic Web framework, based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for thesauri, classification schemes and simple ontologies. A detailed consideration of this model has several implications for the underlying anatomy and physiology. However, an update of the representation itself needs only constant time, making it highly attractive for building a SLAM algorithm. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. Linked Data: It is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods. Moreover, In aphasia output, one of two distinctly different naming problems may be apparent. See: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/brainsci/special_issues/Emotions_Right_Hemisphere that match the following scope of the Special Issue are still welcome! The patient had difficulty in phonological similarity judgements of pictures, but performed normally on semantic similarity judgements. So basically, it supports the ability to interact in terms of language. Then, the term was co-opted by Artificial Intelligence researchers to represent computational models for automated reasoning. On the other hand, a large amount of effort has been devoted to find more practical ways to exploit strong SDP relaxations. Imagine: 'Drag and Drop' Technology that Automatically' builds a knowledge graph. The cerebral cortex is a rich and diverse structure that is the basis of intelligent behavior. The chapter discusses semantic disorders in aphasia and dementia. 1) organization of declarative knowledge organization of knowledge in mind 2) semantic-network models 13. The idea of semantic memory was first introduced following a conference in 1972 between Endel Tulving, of the University of Toronto, and W. Donaldson on the role of organization in human memory. At a later date, the same participants rated the same concepts for prototypicality and familiarity. The resulting knowledge base is a major step beyond WordNet: in quality by adding knowledge about individuals like persons, organizations, products, etc. to model scientific literature and their interlinked relationships, we develop a domain-specific ontology to analyze contents In one, the patient appears to have a problem saying the word while in the second he appears to have a problem knowing the word desired. From an early age, children play sorting and matching games. A multiple single-case strategy revealed not only individuals with consistent advantages for. in the context of other fields of investigation such as cognitive neuropsychology. Therefore, there should be no prevalence of the left hemisphere verbal semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually-based conceptual knowledge, because verbal and pictorial information should be separately processed in (and be independently disrupted by pathology affecting) each hemisphere. The distinction between ‘animals’ and ‘plant life’ within the ‘living’ categories was confirmed by the analysis of their prevalent sources of knowledge and by a cluster analysis, which allowed to distinguish fruits and vegetables from animals. Levels of analysis are not independent in connectionist models, and the dependencies between levels provide an opportunity to co-evolve theories at all levels. When it is individual, knowledge shows an individual's ability to demonstrate judgment in a particular situation. It is well known that on many MIQCPs, convex relaxations using SDP techniques produce some of the strongest bounds. Production of nouns was highly facilitated by provision of a semantically relevant sentence frame. To derive an estimated map from the representation a sparse linear equation system has to be solved. Much of this is represented as semantic information or general knowledge. However, providing a consistent Semantic-Web style explicit representation of an organization’s data semantics is only a first step for leveraging organizational knowledge. It shows that a knowledge-based hierarchy is a natural way to organize the acquisition of knowledge when matching problems with those who know how to solve them is costly. Originally, organizational knowledge is the ability of employees of an organization to perform tasks given the collective understanding of a particular context. Set-theoretical model 2. More coherent categories play a privileged role in the organization of our semantic knowledge; coherent cat- egories are the ones that are most easily learned and represented (8, 15, 16). The emphasis on developing comprehensive KOSs can be seen in the writings of our earliest philosophers, many of whom continue to influence our view of the world. It was originally defined by Polanyi (1958). Good sparing of language functions allowed thorough neuropsychological testing. The main goals of the present review are (a) to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b) to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c) to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations. Semantic memory includes things that are common knowledge, such as the names of colors, the sounds of letters, the capitals of countries and other basic facts acquired over a … We survey some attempts along this direction, which we conceptually categorized into three main approaches: (1) use first-order methods to solve SDP relaxations approximately; (2) exploit dual optimal solution to derive reformulations; (3) generate cuts in the original variable space by solving the (dual) SDP relaxations heuristically. The only aphasic syndrome for which an important role of semantic disorders was admitted was the so called “transcortical sensory aphasia,” caused by a lesion of the posterior parieto-temporo- occipital association areas and characterized, from the clinical point of view, by a severe lexical comprehension disorder with production of verbal–semantic paraphasias, in a context of fluent speech without repetition disorders. The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain.pdf. The Organization of Semantic Memory. During recent years, its study has largely benefited from new medical imaging technologies among which positron emission tomography (PET), allowing for direct observation of in vivo human brain activity. Some technologies have been fully studied and utilized upon this meaningful Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). It is harder to account for as a feature of a more diffuse process, and previous cross-sectional analyses of patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) have differed over whether category effects occur. This loss of semantic knowledge disrupts the normal organization of semantic memory in AD patients and results in aberrations in their network of semantic representations. A widely accepted and interesting technical definition of an ontology that still stands in computer science is that “an ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization” (Gruber, 1993, p. 1). We looked for these types of dissociations in patients with AD in a semantic priming experiment using a pronunciation task and a short stimulus onset asynchrony. Tulving constructed a proposal to distinguish between episodic memoryand what he termed semantic memory. information to improve the organization, analysis and evaluation of scientific digital libraries. Both patients tended to omit function words and finite verb inflections, but Case 2 did so much more than did Case 1. Author information: (1)Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Case 1 had an infarction involving precentral gyrus, subjacent white matter, and posterior and superior aspects of the insula, largely sparing Broca's area. The Organization and Dissolution of Semantic-Conceptual Knowledge: Is the "Amodal Hub" the Only Plausible Model? The connectionist computer uses a special representation, termed value unit encoding, that represents small subsets of parameters in a way that allows parallel access to many different parameter values. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): It is a string of characters that uniquely identifies a particular resource (virtual or physical) that is part of a computer network. (Eds. A pure anomic aphasia—one with no other disturbance of output and no problems in comprehension, repetition, reading, or writing—can be called word selection anomia. In fact, these concepts rely heavily on Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology. The feature database was also used to repli-cate, resolve, and extend a variety of previous observations on the structure of semantic representations. Specifically, the results of our analyses (1) resolve two conflicting claims regarding the relative ratio of sensory to other kinds of attributes in living vs. nonliving concepts; (2) offer new information regarding the types of features—across different domains—that distinguish concepts from their category coordinates ; and (3) corroborate some previous claims of higher intercorrelations between features of living things than those of artefacts. Organization Science This paper proposes a paradigm for managing the dynamic aspects of organizational knowledge creating processes. In this paper, we present SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL): It is a powerful query language and widely used Application Programmer Interface (API) for accessing linked data collections online. ), Kone, Mamadou Tadiou. Semantic Knowledge Discovery, Organization and Use November, 14 and 15, 2008 (Friday and Saturday) Warren Weaver Hall, New York University. This paper explores the hypothesis that an important part of the cortex can be modeled as a connectionist computer that is especially suited for parallel problem solving. In contrast, collective knowledge initiatives in an organization consist of creating and sharing knowledge for improving business and increasing productivity. implicit semantics behind reference indices are mined and organized to improve accessibility of scientific papers. Originally, the concept of ontology was created in the branch of philosophy that studies being or existence, the kind of things that exist. Verb production was far superior to noun production in single word naming. or such a system's conceptual or organizational structure. Kone, M. T. (2021). The main goals of the present review are: (a) to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres; (b) to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge; (c) and to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level as well as the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually-based conceptual representations. Connectionist models are used as examples to illustrate neural representation and computation in the pronouncing of English text, and in the extracting of shape parameters from shaded images. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. Two patients with agrammatic speech and unimpaired comprehension are presented and contrasted. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. This paper studies how communication allows for the specialized acquisition of knowledge. It has been proposed that words are stored in a functional structure which consists of a semantic system and modality-specific input and output lexicons. According to this line of thought, modality-specific perceptual systems process sensory information up to a critical level (the structural description), that permits access to a unitary, abstract and amodal semantic system, where no trace of the previous sensory-motor mechanisms persists. On the contrary, according to the second model, proposed by Allport (1985) and Jackendoff (1987) and developed byDamasio (1989Damasio ( , 1990), We constructed a test battery in which subjects were requested to recognize the same persons (well-known at the national level) through their faces and voices, evaluating familiarity and identifica, We organize a Special Issue in the journal "Brain Sciences" on "Emotions and the Right Hemisphere". Rapid, experience-related changes in the organization of children's semantic knowledge The organization of knowledge according to relations between concepts is crucially important for many cognitive processes, and its emergence during childhood is a key focus of cognitive development research. Many cognitive psychological, computational, and neuropsychological approaches to the organisation of semantic memory have incorporated the idea that concepts are, at least partly, represented in terms of their fine-grained features. Additionally, category-specific deficits have been reported for either abstract or concrete words, often in patients with bilateral neuropathology. One of the deepest mysteries of the function of cortex is that neural processing times are only about one hundred times as fast as the fastest response times for complex behavior. 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